Task Parallel Library in C# with Examples


Exploring the Task Parallel Library (TPL) in C#

The Task Parallel Library (TPL) is a powerful framework introduced in .NET that simplifies the process of writing parallel and asynchronous code. It provides a higher-level abstraction for concurrent programming, allowing developers to take advantage of multicore processors and improve the performance of their applications. In this blog post, we will dive deep into the TPL and explore its various features, including task-based parallelism, async/await patterns, cancellation support, and exception handling.

Introduction to the Task Parallel Library

The Task Parallel Library (TPL) is a set of types and APIs built on top of the .NET Framework that enables efficient and scalable parallel programming. It was introduced in .NET Framework 4.0 and has been further enhanced in subsequent versions. The TPL abstracts the complexities of managing threads and synchronization, providing a higher-level programming model for parallelism.

The core concept in the TPL is the Task. A Task represents an asynchronous operation or unit of work that can be scheduled and executed concurrently. Tasks can be executed in parallel, allowing for efficient utilization of available computing resources.

Task-Based Parallelism

Task-based parallelism is the foundation of the TPL. It enables developers to express parallelism in their code using the Task abstraction. Tasks can be created and started to run concurrently, without explicitly managing threads.

Creating and Starting Tasks

In the TPL, tasks can be created and started using the Task class. Here’s an example:

Task task = Task.Run(() =>
    // Perform some computation

In the above code, we create a task using the Task.Run method, which queues the work to be executed on a ThreadPool thread. The task represents the asynchronous computation and can be used to monitor its progress and handle the result.

Task Continuations

Task continuations allow you to define actions that should be executed when a task completes or fails. This enables you to chain multiple tasks together and express complex workflows. Here’s an example:

Task<int> computationTask = Task.Run(() =>
    // Perform some computation and return the result
    return 42;

Task<string> continuationTask = computationTask.ContinueWith(task =>
    int result = task.Result;
    return $"The answer is: {result}";

Console.WriteLine(continuationTask.Result); // Output: The answer is: 42` 

In the above code, we create a task computationTask that performs some computation and returns a result. We then define a continuation task continuationTask using the ContinueWith method, which executes when computationTask completes. The result of the computation task is accessed using the task.Result property.

Task Scheduling and Parallelism

The TPL automatically manages task scheduling and efficiently utilizes available computing resources, including multiple CPU cores. The TPL uses a work-stealing algorithm to balance the workload across multiple threads and maximize parallelism.

The level of parallelism can be controlled using options such as TaskScheduler, TaskCreationOptions, and ParallelOptions. These options allow you to fine-tune the behavior of task scheduling and parallel execution.

Asynchronous Programming with TPL

The TPL also provides excellent support for asynchronous programming through the async/await patterns. Asynchronous methods allow you to write code that can execute concurrently without blocking the calling thread.

Async/Await Keywords

The async and await keywords were introduced in C# 5.0 to simplify asynchronous programming. By marking a method as async, you can use the await keyword to await the completion of an asynchronous operation without blocking the current thread. Here’s an example:

public async Task<int> FetchDataAsync()
    await Task.Delay(1000); // Simulate an asynchronous operation
    return 42;

public async Task ProcessDataAsync()
    int result = await FetchDataAsync();
    Console.WriteLine($"Fetched data: {result}");

In the above code, the FetchDataAsync method simulates an asynchronous operation using the Task.Delay method. The ProcessDataAsync method awaits the completion of FetchDataAsync using the await keyword.

Asynchronous Task-Based Patterns

The TPL provides a rich set of types and APIs for working with asynchronous operations. These include Task, Task<T>, TaskCompletionSource, and various helper methods. By leveraging these patterns, you can write asynchronous code that is more readable, maintainable, and scalable.

Cancellation Support

The TPL includes comprehensive support for cancellation of tasks and asynchronous operations. It allows you to gracefully cancel long-running operations in response to user actions or application requirements.


The CancellationToken struct is a powerful mechanism provided by the TPL for cancellation. It allows you to propagate cancellation signals to tasks and handle cancellations in a controlled manner. Here’s an example:

CancellationTokenSource cts = new CancellationTokenSource();
CancellationToken token = cts.Token;

Task task = Task.Run(() =>
    while (!token.IsCancellationRequested)
        // Perform some work
}, token);

// Cancel the task after a delay

In the above code, we create a CancellationTokenSource and obtain a CancellationToken from it. We pass the token to the task’s delegate, which periodically checks for cancellation using token.IsCancellationRequested. We cancel the task after a specified delay using cts.CancelAfter.

Cooperative Cancellation

The TPL promotes cooperative cancellation, where the code periodically checks for cancellation and gracefully exits the task or operation. This ensures that resources are properly released and the cancellation is handled in a controlled manner.

Exception Handling

The TPL provides robust exception handling mechanisms for tasks and asynchronous operations. It allows you to catch and handle exceptions that occur during the execution of tasks, making your code more resilient and reliable.


When working with multiple tasks or continuations, exceptions thrown by individual tasks are captured and aggregated in an AggregateException. You can access the individual exceptions using the InnerExceptions property. Here’s an example:

Task task1 = Task.Run(() => { throw new Exception("Task 1 failed."); });
Task task2 = Task.Run(() => { throw new Exception("Task 2 failed."); });

    Task.WaitAll(task1, task2);
catch (AggregateException ex)
    foreach (var innerEx in ex.InnerExceptions)

In the above code, we intentionally throw exceptions in two tasks. We use Task.WaitAll to wait for both tasks to complete and handle any exceptions using an AggregateException.

Task Scheduling and Parallelism

The TPL provides flexible options for controlling task scheduling and parallel execution. These options allow you to fine-tune the behavior of task-based parallelism in your applications.


The TaskScheduler class is responsible for scheduling and executing tasks. By default, the TPL uses the ThreadPoolTaskScheduler, which efficiently distributes tasks across available ThreadPool threads. However, you can also create custom task schedulers to control how tasks are executed.

Here’s an example of using a custom TaskScheduler:

TaskScheduler customScheduler = new MyTaskScheduler(threadCount: 4);
TaskFactory factory = new TaskFactory(customScheduler);

Task task = factory.StartNew(() =>
    // Task code

In this example, we create an instance of MyTaskScheduler with a specified threadCount (in this case, 4). We then create a TaskFactory with the custom scheduler and use it to start a new task.

using System;
using System.Collections.Concurrent;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class MyTaskScheduler : TaskScheduler
    private readonly ConcurrentQueue<Task> taskQueue = new ConcurrentQueue<Task>();
    private readonly Thread[] threads;

    public MyTaskScheduler(int threadCount)
        threads = new Thread[threadCount];

        for (int i = 0; i < threadCount; i++)
            threads[i] = new Thread(WorkerThread);

    protected override IEnumerable<Task> GetScheduledTasks()
        return taskQueue.ToArray();

    protected override void QueueTask(Task task)

    protected override bool TryExecuteTaskInline(Task task, bool taskWasPreviouslyQueued)
        if (Thread.CurrentThread.IsBackground)
            return false;

        return TryExecuteTask(task);

    private void WorkerThread()
        while (true)
            if (taskQueue.TryDequeue(out var task))
                // Optionally, add a delay or wait for new tasks to be enqueued

In the above code, MyTaskScheduler is derived from TaskScheduler and overrides its abstract methods. It uses a ConcurrentQueue<Task> to store tasks that are queued for execution. The WorkerThread method is responsible for executing tasks from the queue in a loop. If there are no tasks in the queue, it can wait or perform other actions as desired.


The TaskCreationOptions enum provides additional options for creating tasks. These options allow you to control aspects such as task scheduling, child task behavior, and more.

Here’s an example of using TaskCreationOptions:

Task task = Task.Factory.StartNew(() =>
    // Task code
}, TaskCreationOptions.LongRunning);

In the above code, we use the TaskCreationOptions.LongRunning option to indicate that the task is expected to have a long duration. This hint can help the task scheduler make better decisions about how to schedule the task.


The ParallelOptions class allows you to control the behavior of parallel loops and operations performed by the Parallel class. It provides options such as MaxDegreeOfParallelism, which limits the maximum number of concurrent operations.

Here’s an example of using ParallelOptions:

ParallelOptions options = new ParallelOptions
    MaxDegreeOfParallelism = Environment.ProcessorCount

Parallel.For(0, 100, options, i =>
    // Perform parallel operation

In the above code, we create a ParallelOptions instance and set the MaxDegreeOfParallelism property to the number of available processors. This ensures that the parallel loop uses the maximum available parallelism.

By utilizing these options, you can fine-tune the scheduling and parallel execution behavior of tasks in the TPL, optimizing performance and resource utilization.


The Task Parallel Library (TPL) in C# provides a powerful framework for parallel and asynchronous programming. By leveraging tasks, async/await patterns, cancellation support, and exception handling mechanisms, developers can write efficient and scalable code that takes full advantage of available computing resources. The TPL abstracts the complexities of managing threads and synchronization, allowing you to focus on writing clean and readable code.

In this blog post, we explored the various features of the Task Parallel Library, including task-based parallelism, async/await patterns, cancellation support, and exception handling. We also discussed real-world scenarios where the TPL can be effectively used. By mastering the TPL, you can unlock the potential of parallel and asynchronous programming in your C# applications.


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