Recursively Flatten JavaScript Array

I have started a series on the recursive problem with visualisation so that It’s easy to understand. In this problem, I will show you how to flat nested array objects using javaScript with visualisation.

Let’s suppose you have the following function(fn), which accepts a nested array as arguments, and then it flats the array into a single array.




The above example is perfect for recursion.

function flatten(ary) {
  var ret = [];
    for(var i = 0; i < ary.length; i++) {
        if(Array.isArray(ary[i])) {
            ret = ret.concat(flatten(ary[i]));
        } else {
    return ret;

Let’s understand the code line by line.

  • A first-time function call is flatten([2,[3],4]
  • Then it calls flatten([3] because three is the array
  • In the final call, the last function returns three and append to the result

See the visualisation to understand how to recursive function tree is generated.

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